What is good governance?
"Governance" and "good governance" are key words currently being used in development literature. Bad governance is regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that reforms that ensure "good governance" are undertaken.
So what do "governance" and "good governance" actually mean?
The concept of "governance" is not new. It is as old as human civilisation. It is the process of decision making and implementation. Governance can be used in several contexts such as: corporate, international, national and local.
An analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision making, the implementation of decisions made and the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to achieve this.
Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors vary according to level and area. In rural areas, for example, other actors may include influential land lords, associations of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions political parties, the military etc. The situation in urban areas is much more complex. Figure 1 demonstrates the relationships between the different actors involved. At the national level, in addition, media, lobbyists, international donors, multi-national corporations, etc. may play a role in any part of the decision making or in influencing the process.
All actors other than government and the military are grouped together as part of civil society. In some countries in addition to civil society, organised crime syndicates are also highly influential, particularly in urban areas and at the national level.
Similarly formal government structures are one means by which decisions are arrived at and implemented. At the national level, informal decision making structures, such as "kitchen cabinets" or informal advisors may exist. In urban areas, organised crime syndicates such as the "land Mafia" may influence decision-making. In some rural areas locally powerful families may be involved in some way. Such informal decision making is often the result of or leads to corrupt practices.
Figure 1: Urban actors
Good governance has eight major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimised, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society.
Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision making. Participation needs to be informed and organised. This means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organised civil society on the other hand.
Rule of law
Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.
Transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media.
Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.
Figure 2: Characteristics of good governance
There are several actors and as many view points in a given society. Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community.
Equity and inclusiveness
A society's wellbeing depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from mainstream society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their wellbeing.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organisations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organisation or institution. In general an organisation or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law.
From the above discussion it should be clear that good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving it. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality.
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